Manufacturing

ATEX—Explosive Atmospheres: Risk Assessment, Control and by Torben Jespen

By Torben Jespen

This publication info how defense (i.e. the absence of unacceptable dangers) is ensured in parts the place probably explosive atmospheres (ATEX) can come up. The e-book additionally bargains readers crucial details on easy methods to conform to the latest (April 2016) ecu laws while the presence of ATEX can't be avoided.

By proposing common information on matters bobbing up out of the european ATEX laws – particularly on region type, explosion possibility evaluation, apparatus categorization, Ex-marking and similar technical/chemical points – the e-book presents gear brands, dependable employers, and others with the fundamental wisdom they should have the capacity to comprehend the several – and sometimes advanced – features of ATEX and to enforce the required security precautions. As such, it represents a useful source for all these fascinated about retaining excessive degrees of security in ATEX environments.

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Extra info for ATEX—Explosive Atmospheres: Risk Assessment, Control and Compliance

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1. Bulk CO2 is typically stored as a liquid in storage tanks with capacities of approximately 6, 14, 26 and 50 tons (capacities of 90 tons have also been mentioned), maintained at a pressure between 17 and 21 bar by a refrigeration unit (Low pressure systems). Smaller liquid quantities are stored and shipped in cryogenic liquid cylinders with a capacity of about 175 kg. The vapour pressure of the liquid in the cylinders at 20 °C is about 56 bar (High pressure systems). High pressure storage CO2 systems are also available with tank sizes from 3 to 15 tons which are supplied from low pressure tankers with a max pressure between 20 and 25 bar of CO2 being kept at a temperature between −20 and −29 °C.

The ability of charge to accumulate on powder is dependent on the Powder Volume Resistivity (Ω × m) of the powder, and the charge relaxation time, which is a function of Powder Volume Resistivity. In theory, the greater the Powder Volume resistivity, the higher the charge relaxation time will be. Both of these parameters are affected by relative humidity and therefore should be tested accordingly. In theory, the higher the relative humidity, the lower the Powder Volume Resistivity, and the lower the charge relaxation time will be.

4 Minimum Ignition Temperature (MIT or Tig) MIT (or Tig) is the lowest temperature of a heated surface that ignites a dust cloud upon a brief contact. MIT is dependent on the shape and surface of the vessel used for its determination. 30 3 ATEX—Risk Parameters MIT does not inter zone classification deliberations, but is of importance when considering the elimination of ignition sources and for the specification of electrical equipment, and is a design parameter for explosion suppression. 5 Layer Ignition Temperature (LIT or Ts) LIT of a dust layer is the lowest temperature at which a dust layer on a hot surface ignites.

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