Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction (Cambridge Textbooks in by Paul R. Kroeger

By Paul R. Kroeger

Masking either syntax (the constitution of words and sentences) and morphology (the constitution of words), this ebook equips scholars with the instruments and strategies had to research grammatical styles in any language. scholars are proven the way to use average notational units corresponding to word constitution timber and word-formation ideas, in addition to prose descriptions. Emphasis is put on evaluating the several grammatical structures of the world's languages, and scholars are inspired to perform the analyses via a various variety of challenge units and routines.

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Moreover, each of these phrases forms a semantic unit: orang tua itu refers to a single, specific, individual. And, although it contains three words, the phrase bears only one g r a m m at i c a l r e l at i o n in sentence (7e), namely subject (see chapter 4). (8) a b c d e f Ahmad | makan | nasi. Fauzi | makan | roti. Orang ini | makan | ikan. Anjing itu | makan | tulang besar. Orang tua itu | makan | pisang. Ahmad | makan | ikan besar itu. ’ But we must be careful here. e. a constituent). For example, the subject of the Warlpiri sentence in (9) (‘small child’) consists of two words, a noun and an adjective, which are widely separated from each other and so could not form a constituent in the normal sense.

In this case the lack of a suffix has a definite and specific meaning. By associating that meaning (third person singular) with a null morpheme, we can fill an otherwise puzzling gap in the paradigm (or set) of Turkish person–number agreement markers. Contrast this pattern with the marking of English verbs, which take a suffix -s in the simple present tense when the subject is third person singular. 17 18 Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction The absence of this suffix simply means that the verb is not a third person singular simple present form.

A: Orang tua itu. ’ b Q: Orang tua itu makan apa? A: Ikan besar itu. ’ c Q: Orang tua itu makan apa? ’ 31 32 Analyzing Grammar: An Introduction Let us briefly summarize the kinds of evidence we have mentioned. We have claimed that certain strings of Malay words form a syntactic constituent because these strings: a b c d e can replace, or be replaced by, a single word; occur in positions within the sentence which must be unique; may occur in a number of different sentence positions, as illustrated in (10), and can be “moved” (or re-ordered) as a unit, as illustrated in (12); can be replaced by a question word; can function as the answer to a content question.

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