By Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole
A brand new version of the UK's common advent to the risks provided by way of ionizing radiation and the equipment of security and control.
Read or Download An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E PDF
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Additional info for An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E
One very important radionuclide arises mainly from the interaction of neutrons in cosmic radiation with nitrogen in the upper atmosphere to form carbon-14 as follows: 14 N (n, p)14C Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) Carbon-14, which has a half-life of 5568 years, diffuses to the lower atmosphere, where it may become incorporated in living matter. 1 ¥ 105 years) are maintained in the lower atmosphere by cosmic ray reactions. They are much less important than 14C. Some of these radioisotopes, particularly 14C, can be absorbed by plant life and subsequently cycled into the whole food chain.
As a result, there are programmes in a number of countries to identify dwellings and workplaces that have high concentrations and, where necessary, to undertake remedial work. Radon can be ‘actively’ measured using specialized ionization chambers which continuously measure and record the amount of radon or its decay products in the air. However, such equipment is expensive and requires expert operation. As radon concentration inside buildings can vary signiﬁcantly with time, depending on area usage and weather conditions, prolonged measurements using ‘passive’ radon meters often provide a more reliable and much simpler approach.
It remains at about this ﬁgure until much higher doses are reached. In this region, the radiation dose causes severe depletion of the cells lining the intestine. Gross damage occurs in the lining of the intestine, followed by severe bacterial invasion. This is called the region of gastrointestinal death. At much higher doses, survival times become progressively shorter. There are very few human data in this region, but from animal experiments the symptoms indicate some damage to the central nervous system and hence the region is called the region of central nervous system death.