Microelectronics

# An Introduction to Fiber Optic Systems by John P. Powers

By John P. Powers

AN creation TO FIBER OPTICS platforms, 2/e, is appropriate for college kids and pros. The subject and key aggressive virtue provided via the booklet is its pragmatic method of the learn of fiber optics in communications. The textual content integrates assorted parts of fiber optics and offers a transparent photo of ways they're utilized in fiber optics verbal exchange. via introducing the terminology utilized in fiber optics, and describing the construction blocks of an optical fiber process, Powers' textual content allows scholars to technique the preliminary layout of optical hyperlinks, and to appreciate the tradeoffs made in designing and utilizing a fiber optics communique line.

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The loss is expressed in decibels per kilometer and is written as dBkm–1. For silica glass fibers we are looking at values around 3 dBkm–1 for the fibers used for medium range transmissions. This corresponds to about half the power being last for each kilometer of travel. 3 dBkm–1 giving losses of only 7% per kilometer. If a kilometer has a loss of 3 dB, then 2 km will have a total loss of 2 ϫ 3 = 6 dB. It is, after all, just the same as having two attenuators connected in series. So, to obtain the total loss of a fiber, we simply multiply the loss specification in dBkm1 by the length of the fiber (measured in kilometers of course).

This accounts for the blue sky and the red of the sunset. The high frequency end of the visible spectrum is the blue light and this is scattered more than the red light when sunlight hits the atmosphere. The sky is only actually illuminated by the scattered light. So when we look up, we see the blue scattered light, and the sky appears blue. The moon has no atmosphere, no scattering, and hence a black sky. At sunset, we look towards the sun and see the less scattered light which is closer to the sun.

We can write: ᭟ ᭟ ᭟ 102 = 100, or say 10 squared is equal to 100, or even 10 to the power of 2 is 100. But how would we describe the number 2 in this situation? It is called the logarithm, or log of 100. It is the number to which 10 must be raised to equal 100. 39 ch05 3/5/01 11:52 Page 40 Introduction to Fiber Optics As 102 = 100 and the log of 100 is 2, and 103 = 1000 and the log of 1000 is 3, it follows that the log of any number between 100 and 1000 must be between 2 and 3. We cannot work them out for ourselves so we must use a calculator.