An Illustrated History of Health and Fitness, from by Roy J. Shephard

By Roy J. Shephard

This publication examines the health/fitness interplay in an historic context. starting in primitive hunter-gatherer groups, the place survival required sufficient actual task, it is going directly to examine alterations in health and wellbeing and actual job at next levels within the evolution of “civilization.” It makes a speciality of the well-being affects of a growing to be figuring out of drugs and body structure, and the emergence of a middle-class with the money and time to select from lively and passive hobbies. The publication displays on urbanization and industrialization when it comes to the necessity for public healthiness measures, and the ever-diminishing actual calls for of the work-place. It then evaluates the attitudes of prelates, politicians, philosophers and lecturers at every one level of the method. eventually, the ebook explores specialist and governmental projects to extend public involvement in lively relaxation via numerous tuition, worksite, leisure and activities programmes.​

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Extra resources for An Illustrated History of Health and Fitness, from Pre-History to our Post-Modern World (Studies in History and Philosophy of Science,volume 39)

Sample text

Moreover, these materials appear to have been dragged to their present site from quarries some 15 km away (Brundage 1985). As far as the peasants were concerned, it has also been suggested that in typical bureaucratic fashion, the state was perpetually creating new projects, leaving the general population with little time for leisure (Craig 2002). In return for such enforced labour, the state organized the terracing of hillsides, constructed a 22,000 km network of roads (mainly paved), built many woven reed suspension bridges (suitable only for pedestrian traffic), installed irrigation systems that provided drinking water and allowed the cultivation of crops in arid areas, and stored any harvest surpluses for times of famine (De Onis 1959).

At this site, the villagers lived in small, single-room mud-brick houses; the community was protected by a stone wall, with a stone watch-tower. The total population of this settlement may have been as large as 2,000–3,000. Studies of ancient dung deposits suggest that the domestication of animals spread to the Nile valley around 5000 BCE (Blench and MacDonald 2000; Linseele et al. 2010; Marinova et al. 2013). In Pakistan, Neolithic settlements have been traced back as far as 7000 BCE, but in South India there is no trace of any settlement prior to 3000 BCE.

This seems to have developed around 1400 BCE (Cox et al. 1973; Hill et al. 1998). In its final form, the sport took place within structured courts as large as 126Â25 m. The rules of the game remain uncertain. In different versions, two teams of seven players apparently struck the ball using their hips, their forearms, rackets, bats, or hand stones. The general pattern of play may have borne some relationship to racquet ball (Glassford 1969). The original objective was probably to keep the ball in play, but subsequently stone rings were introduced as a form of goal; contestants then had to pass the ball through the ring, set on a wall 6–7 m above the ground, in order to win.

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