Grammar

Adverb Licensing and Clause Structure in English by Dagmar Haumann

By Dagmar Haumann

This monograph presents an in-depth research of the structural integration and the licensing of adverbs on the subject of clause constitution, with distinct emphasis at the structural implementation of the relation among the placement and interpretation of adverbs. The booklet substantiates the speculation that the licensing of adverbs inside and around the 3 layers of the clause is contingent on specifier-head contract and that edition within the linear order of adverbs and different components of the clause follows from the interaction of a small variety of elements. The imperative claims made are: useful projections webhosting adverbs aren't restricted to the inflectional and complementizer layer of the clause, but in addition play a relevant function within the shaping of the lexical layer; postverbal adverbs are discovered inside a semantically empty verbal projection and certified lower than specifier head contract by means of proxy; and adverbs that happen in the complementizer layer of the clause achieve this through both move or merge.

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Extra resources for Adverb Licensing and Clause Structure in English

Example text

To rule out the illicit strings, one would have to postulate an output filter stating that (a) VP-adjoined adverbs must not be adjacent and (b) adverbs licensed by the feature [AGENT] must outscope those licensed by the feature [MANNER]. As witnessed by the contrasts between the well-formed and the illicit strings in (64) – (66), multiple adjunction to IP is prone to run into the same problems as multiple adjunction to VP: (64) a. Carefully he slowly opened the door to the library. b. * Slowly he carefully opened the door to the library.

Intentionally, the rock rolled down the hill. b. * The bomb exploded intentionally. 24 ADVERB LICENSING AND CLAUSE STRUCTURE IN ENGLISH This assumption is corroborated by the fact that agent-oriented adverbs are admissible in passives even if the argument bearing the Agent role is implicit: (23) Mary was seduced intentionally. e. 7 Likewise, adjunct Θ-roles assigned by subject-sensitive adverbs are not assigned to S, but combine with whichever Θ-role the constituent occupying the subject position bears.

If they were 'visible', (20) would be filtered out since the subject, John, would be assigned two Θ-roles, one by the verb roll and one by the adverb voluntarily: (20) Voluntarily, John rolled down the hill. Adjunct Θ-roles further differ from "true" Θ-roles in that they are not assigned at d-structure but only at (s-structure or) LF. Evidence for this assumption derives from the orientation of subject-oriented adverbs and manner adverbs in actives and passives. e. the agent (21a) and the patient (21b), manner adverbs (21c, d), always modify the agent, Joe: (21) a.

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