By Waldo E. Cohn (auth.), Seymour Rothchild (eds.)
The 11th Symposium on Advances in Tracer process ology was once held in Boston on October 13-14, 1966. The sym posium, which was once subsidized through the hot England Nuclear company, venerated the 10th anniversary of the company. The Symposia on Advances in Tracer method, which were held on a regular basis when you consider that 1957, collect study employees in quite a few disciplines who proportion an curiosity in radioactive tracers. The 4 volumes, this one representing the list of the 11th Symposium, offer a compact and available resource of information-much of which was once frequently scattered through the medical literature-of inter est to biochemists, pharmacologists, endocrinologists, and analysts for whom tracers became an crucial instrument. The editor is principally thankful to Dr. Konrad Bloch, Harvard collage, and Dr. Waldo E. Cohn, Oak Ridge nationwide Laboratory, for chairing the periods on the 11th Sym posium. The cooperation of the audio system is deeply favored. additionally, a distinct bouquet to my secretary, Mrs. Edith Thompson, for her beneficiant tips in arranging a few of the symposia and the book of the papers. S. R.
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Extra info for Advances in Tracer Methodology: Volume 4: A collection of papers presented at the Eleventh Annual Symposium on Tracer Methodology
D. , Biosynthesis of Cytidine-2-C 14 Cytidine-2-C 14 is prepared microbiologically by incorporation of uracil-2-C 14 into E. coli wc- , a mutant requiring uracil for growth. The radioactivity is incorporated primarily into 46 Labeled Compounds the pyrimidines of RNA and DNA. Repeated extraction of the harvested cells with 70% (vol/vol) ethanol at 47°C yields a residue of nucleic acids and protein, which is incubated with 1 N KOH for 18 hr at 37°C to hydrolyze the RNA present to the 2' and 3' ribonucleotides.
In the case of certain drugs, such as morphine  and methohexital  in which in vivo N-demethylation is unimportant, the N-methyl group represents a stable label for general metabolism and distribution studies. In in vitro experimentation, of course, the N-methyl-C 14 label is a perfectly stable label as long as the liver microsomal oxidase system is absent. One difficulty which arises during the use of N-methyl- 38 Labeled Compounds labeled drugs should also be mentioned. This difficulty arises from the fact that a small amount of the radiocarbon which arises from the oxidation of the N-methyl group becomes involved in the one-carbon metabolism of the body and appears to enter the nucleic acid pool.
It is perhaps because radiochemicals provide a convenient and sensitive means of detection of impurities that their decomposition is so apparent. At this point it would be proper to interject a note of caution, since impurities can arise as artifacts of seemingly innocuous laboratory manipulations. For example, glutamic acid can readily give rise to pyrrolidone carboxylic acid under suitable conditions of pH and temperature  or may be esterified when slowly evaporated to dryness in the presence of hydro xylic compounds .