Advances in Photovoltaics: Part 4, by Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

By Gerhard P. Willeke, Eicke R. Weber

Advances in Photovoltaics: Part Four presents useful info at the demanding situations confronted through the transformation of our power provide process to extra effective, renewable energies.

The quantity discusses the subject from an international standpoint, providing the most recent details on photovoltaics, a cornerstone technology.

It covers all facets of this significant semiconductor expertise, reflecting at the super and dynamic advances which were made in this subject on account that 1975, whilst the 1st booklet on sun cells-written by means of Harold J. Hovel of IBM-was released as quantity eleven within the now well-known sequence on Semiconductors and Semimetals.

Readers will achieve a behind the curtain examine the continual and swift clinical improvement that results in the mandatory fee and price rate reductions in international business mass-production.

  • Written by means of top, the world over recognized specialists on his topic
  • Provides an in-depth assessment of the present prestige and views of skinny movie PV technologies
  • Discusses the demanding situations confronted throughout the transformation of our power provide method to extra effective, renewable energies
  • Delves deep into photovoltaics, a cornerstone technolog

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A certain difficulty is the extraction of the latent heat from the system, which is released during the solidification. In order to keep the interface flat, the heat has to be removed through the bottom, as uniformly as possible. In contrast to manufacturers of Cz pullers, with just a few companies active, a large number of equipment providers tried to get a foot into the door of the multicrystallizer furnace market during the booming period a few years ago. Most of them sold just a few crystallizers, big business was concentrated at GT-Solar (now GT-Advanced Technology), which equipped at that time more than 80% of the market.

7. The basic features of the Cz technique might be summarized as follows: the feedstock material (it might be broken chunks, or chips, or etched cutoffs, or even granules) is loaded into a quartz glass crucible, which is sitting in a graphite susceptor (Fig. 8). The material is heated by a graphite-based resistance heater; in most cases, it is a single, fence-shaped heater, sitting in a fixed position and surrounding the crucible. The crucible can be moved up and down, similar to the seed crystal.

38 Peter Dold Figure 20 Top left: A quartz crucible (sinter quartz) is sitting inside a graphite susceptor. The quartz crucible is coated with a Si3N4 layer (or more precisely, a silicon oxinitride layer) in order to prevent sticking of the silicon melt to the crucible. Crucibles are consumables designed for single use only. Top right: Crucible loaded with 250 kg of polysilicon. Loading is done manually; any damage of the coating has to be avoided carefully. Bottom: Multicrystalline ingot (G4) together with a brick and a cutoff side slab.

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