A Systematic Vademecum to the Vascular Plants of Puerto Rico by Franklin S. Axelrod

By Franklin S. Axelrod

Have you puzzled the place a Puerto Rican plant grows, while it plants, the place it comes from? good, this is an annotated list of the vascular crops shortly came upon transforming into within the wild at the island of Puerto Rico that may be a useful reduction to botanists, ecologists, foresters and anyone else drawn to the vegetation of Puerto Rico. right here you'll find the distribution of vascular crops in the island supplied in keeping with a unique scheme that comes with either huge physiographic parts and particular geographical websites. those are either defined within the textual content and illustrated by means of 3 maps. additionally, you will locate important info at the occasions of flowering, fruiting, and spore creation for every plant and likewise references for every one to contemporary monographs on Puerto Rican crops the place a fuller description of every should be found.

In the previous few years there were many adjustments within the names of person plant taxa (species, subspecies, and types) and within the alignment of plant households. those alterations are recorded during this paintings in this sort of approach that older clinical names in addition to Spanish universal names should be tracked to new permitted ones. for the reason that there's a lot overlap of the Puerto Rican plants with that of different Caribbean islands and parts, those nomenclatural alterations can be of use to researchers operating in these areas.

This list covers 2909 taxa which are integrated in 1053 genera and 210 households. of those taxa 2335 (80.2%) are local and 574 (19.7%) are unique; of the local ones, 243 (10.4%) are endemic.

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In addition, the GSTOs, DHARs and GSTLs aH catalyse thiol transfer reactions (Board et al. 2000; Dixon et al. 2002a). The exact significance of these thioltransferase reactions is unknown, though in other glutathione-dependent proteins such as the glutaredoxins, this re action removes glutathione from S-glutathionylated proteins. Since S-glutathionylation of proteins, also termed thiolation, is an important method of regulating the activity of proteins with reactive sulphydryl groups (Klatt and Lamas 2000), both DHARs and GSTLs may have important roles in regulating protein thiolation, areaction which is known to occur during oxidative stress.

Under normal conditions, this enzyme has been shown to bind jun Metabolism by Glutathione S-Transferases 37 kinase, inhibiting its phosphorylating activity. Stress invoked by treatment with UV or H 2 0 2 causes multimerisation ofhGSTP, which ameliorates its inhibition of jun kinase. This in turn activates a signalling cascade resulting in the expression of cytoprotective genes (Adler et al. 1999). Other examples indude the stringent starvation protein SspA from E. coli, which is a member of the GST superfamily and which binds to RNA polymerase under conditions of starvation, leading to large scale changes in gene expression (Williams et al.

1 GSTs in Transgenic Plants Considering the long-standing links between GSTs and the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stress, there are remarkably few reports of the respective co ding sequences being over-expressed or used in antisense studies in transgenic plants. In contrast there are many reports of the promoters of inducible GSTs being used to drive the expression of reporter genes to study the regulation of these genes (see Sect. 2). Workers at Syngenta have reported the effects of the over-expression of a safener-inducible GSTF from maize in tobacco, with the transgenic plants showing increased tolerance to both chloroacetanilide and thiocarbamate herbicides (Jepson et al.

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