Grammar

21st Century Grammar Handbook by Barbara Ann Kipfer

By Barbara Ann Kipfer

This all-new consultant to english is designed to be user-friendly.  Its cutting edge A-to-Z dictionary structure helps you to locate the solutions on your questions about grammar, punctuation, and most popular utilization fast and easily.  Simply lookup the matter parts as you will search for a be aware within the dictionary.  It's simply that straightforward and time-saving.  

A word list of phrases and abundant cross-references provide much more support for those who desire it.  Created by means of a number one professional in linguistics and lexicography.  Covers all crucial parts of grammar and style.  A key note index for speedy entry. transparent, abundant examples.  

Up-to-date, smooth, most popular educational and enterprise usage.  Portable for college, domestic, or workplace.

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Extra info for 21st Century Grammar Handbook

Example text

G. the car outside the gate of the house with the green r o o f . . We thus arrive at a typical "rank scale" for the grammar of a language, something like the following: 19 ON LANGUAGE AND LINGUISTICS [configurative structures] [iterative structures] -clause complex clause •phrase/group complex phrase/group •word complex word •morpheme complex morpheme Figure 3 This enables us to model syntagmatic composition in theoretical terms. Every text consists exhaustively of (i) configurations and (ii) iterations, at each rank, with the limiting case of one element at each structural node.

We take a step in this direction when we locate the options in system networks, according to their entry conditions: a system way down in the delicacy scale will have a relatively small domain of operation (for example, clausal substitute polarity transfer in English, as in I think not/1 don't think so, which figures only in a certain type of projected clause nexus). But the relative contribution to the meaning potential also depends on these quantitative factors: a system whose options are very skew makes less contribution than one whose options are more or less equiprobable; and a system that is accessed only via a chain of low probability options makes less contribution than one that is accessed in a majority of selectional environments.

This construes one particular instance in the child's experience in such a way as to relate it to a large variety of other instances. Grammatically, the figure is realized by a clause; we can describe it as a selection expression having a number of systemic features including material, effective, doing, dispositive, ... ; this particular combination of features is realized by the structural configuration Actor • Process • Goal; the Process is realized in the syntagm as a verbal group; the two participants, Actor and Goal, by nominal groups; and the relationship among them by their arrangement in this particular linear sequence.

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