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Additional info for 10th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging: 15-16 May 2012, Savoy Place, London
1 The closed cycle The closed cycle is here defined as a process beginning and ending at BDC at the points start of compression (ac) and end of expansion (ex) (Fig. 1). These points are defined in the p–V diagram as extrapolations to BDC by means of an isentropic expansion of the respective points where the inlet valve closes (IVC) and the exhaust valve opens (EVO). In the case of Miller with IVC before BDC, the point ac is the effective start of compression. Taking the closed cycle as the most important part of the process, one obviously must consider parameters like the compression ratio ε, firing pressure pmax and its ratio to compression pressure pc.
The difference between the 2 NOxemission levels is approximately constant for all models, while model C can profit from the largest relative reduction. Under the given boundary conditions, the pressure ratio related to highest efficiency is about 7 for the medium-speed engines, whereas for the high-speed engine it amounts to values above 8. This is a consequence of the higher exhaust gas temperature in accordance with Fig. 13. The condition of constant compression and firing pressures keep the areas in a relatively narrow range.
13: Pressure difference over cylinder as permissible. 3 Economic considerations So far only the pressure ratio and efficiency of 2-stage turbocharging have been discussed. Flow capacity plays an important role in the physical dimensions of the 2-stage turbocharging system. The benefits of 2-stage turbocharging can be accessed in a profitable way by using components with high specific capacity. Fig. 14 shows the evolution of ABB/BBC compressor stages for a constant wheel 64 diameter in terms of pressure ratio and flow capacity.